Paises y sitios arqueológicos en la base de datos “Mapa de Maíz Antiguo” con fechas directas de muestras macro-botánicas o micro-botánicas de maíz o fechas indirectas de muestras micro-botánicas.

País Sitios Muestras Fechadas Directamente Muestras Fechadas Indirectamente Número Total de Muestras
Muestras Residuos Macro-Botánicas Residuos Macro-Botánicos Muestras Residuos Macro-Botánicas Residuos Macro-Botánicos
Belize 2 0 0 0 3 1 0 4
Ecuador 1 0 0 1 0 0 0 2
El Salvador 1 0 0 0 0 5 0 5
Guatemala 1 0 0 0 4 0 0 4
Honduras 2 0 0 0 23 0 0 23
Mexico 3 0 0 0 29 0 0 29
U.S.A. 4 0 0 0 51 0 0 51
7 14 0 0 1 110 6 0 118

Nota Adicional

Muestras Fechadas Directamente:

These include all samples with AMS or conventional radiocarbon dates directly on cacao macro-botanical fragments (such as seeds, husks, etc.) as well as samples of chemical signatures, micro-botanical remains including phytoliths, pollen, and starch grains that are contained (or trapped) within directly dated organic residues. For example, phytoliths and starch grains trapped in residues adhering to pottery can be precisely dated when the organic residues containing them are dated using AMS dating. So far, these types of samples are extremely rare, or non-existent in the archaeological record, because cacao remains do not preserve well, and when they occasionally do preserve, they have not yet been directly dated.

Muestras Fechadas Indirectamente:

This category includes chemical samples (theobromine), macro-botanical (Theobroma seeds, husks, wood, etc.) and micro-botanical remains (phytoliths, pollen, and starch grains) that have been dated by association. Cacao samples that are associated either with AMS or conventional radiocarbon dates on other organic material such as charcoal, wood, shell, or bone indirectly associated with the cacao remains, fall into this category. Also, cacao remains that are in or on pottery vessels or fragments of vessels that belong to a known chronological phase are also considered to be indirectly dated. When using this latter group of ceramic phase dates, we estimate the phase mid-point in calibrated years before present (cal BP).